How do these speaking components the success or failure ...Public speaking is an act or process of speaking to a group of people in a structured deliberate manner with a view to educating, persuading and informing the audience. It is also an oral presentation in which a speaker addresses an audience. With these definitions, it is obvious that public speaking involves components that make it a success or failure. Let look at these component or element:
Speech communication erupts with a speaker. It is noteworthy that the speaker is not always the encoder, especially if he has to represent the initiator of the communication process. The success of a speaker rests solely on his personal credibility, knowledge of the subject, preparation of the speech, manner of speaking, sensitivity to the audience and the occasion. Effective speech delivery transcends dexterity as it also requires enthusiasm. Listeners are bound to be indifferent to your speech presentation unless you are fully equipped with something that ignites your own enthusiasm.
Message is the preoccupation of the speaker. The goal of a public speaker is to have his intended message transmitted to the destination. What the speaker says and how it is said goes a long way in achieving the success of speech. A shrewd speaker is expected to narrow down his central idea to what can be discussed adequately within the stipulated time. He or she must thoroughly research the topic and use relevant supporting details with a view to making his or her message clear, accurate, vivid, appropriate and convincing. Also, an effective speaker must organize his ideas so listeners can follow them without getting lost. One way of achieving this is through the use of signposts.
The information exchanged between transceivers is the message. The speaker’s message is better sent with the tone of his voice, appearance, gestures, facial expression, and eye contact.
Messages are sent through channels. The channel is the means by which a message is communicated. In a public speaking situation, speakers may use one or more of several channels-each of which will affect the message received by the audience. Human beings are described as multi-channel communicators and the more the channels engaged in a communicative act, the greater the chances that the act would be successful. Spoken words are carried by sound waves while visual messages are carried by light waves. The conduit pipe through which the medium chosen is transmitted to the audience is the channel.
Medium and channel are used interchangeably by some communication scholars whereas some try to differentiate them. The medium of communication often refers to the technical aspects of communication. The form in which the speaker prefers to package the message is the medium. Therefore, the medium could be oral, written or non-verbal. The major thing about public speaking is that the speaker must be heard. Are you using a microphone? Let it be properly handled. It must not be too close or too far from you. You must be more cautious if the message is being transmitted live. H
ow do these speaking components the success or failure
Communication takes place in a context, place, setting or environment. The setting of a speech delivery informs the meaning the transceivers attach to it. Context or situation is the time and place in which speech communication occurs. Certain occasions such as political campaigns, religious services, graduation ceremonies and funerals require different kinds of speeches. Public speakers must be alive to every public situation. A good public speaker speaks to mirror the occasion. The context must evoke the message, not the message altering the context. A speech in time of prosperity must be different from a speech in time of austerity.
An audience is the person who receives the communicated message. Without the audience, there is no communication. An effective speaker must be audience-centered. Speech presentation must be done with the audience in mind. Everything a speaker says is filtered through a listener’s frame of reference. This is because the duo is different people who can never have exactly the same frame of reference.
A public speaker must take great care to adapt the message to the particular audience being addressed. A successful speaker is meticulous enough not to insult the listeners’ culture. It must be noted that any speaker who fails to relate to the audience interests, knowledge, experience and values will lose them.
The negative or positive, immediate or delayed, verbal or non-verbal reactions we receive during any speech communication are called feedback. Communication is incomplete without the listeners’ responses. More often than not, feedback usually comes in non-verbal forms such as head nods, frowns, smiles and facial expressions. As a speaker, you need to keep yourself abreast of these reactions and to adjust your message accordingly.
Noise is anything that impedes the communication of a message between a speaker and an audience. It is any internal or external factors that cause a breakdown in communication. Interference is anything that affects the fidelity of the code. There is the physical or environmental noise which disturbs the ears. Also, there is the psychological noise which deals with the state of mind or disposition of one of the transceivers. It may be due to emotional incapability, tiredness, poor mental attitude or depression. There is the physiological noise which relates to the state of health of either the speaker or the listeners. Linguistic noise, which could be semantic, grammatical or phonological, does result in ineffective speech delivery.
Mechanical or technological noise, which is any element that mars the clarity of verbal presentation, must equally not be undermined. This is the situation when there is a problem with the machine, system or other equipment in a speech communication process.
Effects, in communication, are very difficult to measure. This has made many communication researchers to prefer the terms impact and influence. Effects, however, refer to the speaker’s goals and expectations at the end of the speech delivery. Effects could be physical, emotional or cognitive. It is whatever the audience does as a result of the speaker’s message.
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