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List Of Mineral Resources in Nigeria (Location & Uses).

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Mineral Resources in Nigeria, their location and uses – Nigeria is endowed with abundant mineral resources including crude oil/petroleum, gold, iron, lead, zinc, rare metals (SnNbTa), coal and gemstones which could be harnessed for its development.

Mineral Resources in Nigeria

These mineral deposits were formed at different stages in the geological evolution of Nigeria. Sadly, despite this mineral endowment, the country’s mineral sector has failed to meet public expectation of driving economic growth and generating employment to the teaming youth.

Presently, the sector contributes less than 1% to the nation’s annual GDP. Paradoxically, the country is so much endowed yet so poor!

This abnormality can be attributed to overdependence on oil, political instability, poor legal, regulatory and institutional framework and lack of up to date geosciences data that can facilitate investment decision making.

Talking about Mineral Resources in Nigeria,  the advent of Crude oil and the oil booms in the country has shifted greatly to being overly reliant in Petroleum because of the lots of revenue generated from it, and that love for petro-dollars has seen neglect for the many other natural resources it has. Lets’ look at these diverse of mineral and natural recourses in Nigeria below;

Challenges Of  Mineral Development In Nigeria

    • Low metal prices
    • Depleted alluvial reserves (of tin and columbite),
    • Inefficient State-owned corporations
    • Unfavorable mining code
    • Opaque and inefficient license administration system
    • Prevalence of illegal mining
    • Lack of adequate and reliable geoscience data
    • Poor Management of the State Enterprise
    • Excessive dependence on Petroleum Resources
    • Policy Instability
    • Lack of Credit and Financing
    • Information on Minerals Mined

Current Mining Reform Strategy in Nigeria

    • 100% Private sector ownership of Mining
    • New Minerals and Mining Act (2007)
    • Liberal and transparent access to mining rights
    • Strengthening Geoscience data generation
    • Competition for mining titles/rights on “first-come, firstserved” basis.
    • Removal of discretionary powers of government officials

      in mining title grant.

    • Security of tenure of mining rights.
    • Provision of the principle of “use it or lose it” in mining

      rights administration.

    • Use of time limits for granting titles.
    • Mining titles are transferable and amendable.
    • Introduction of Community Development Agreement.
    • Introduction of Mineral Resources and Environmental
    • Management Committee in States to facilitate mining

      development

List Of Mineral Resources in Nigeria and Their Uses

Mineral Resources in Nigeria

These mineral resources found in Nigeria were bestowed to the country by providence for its benefit and harnessing them has helped to shape the economy of the country are:

1. Petroleum/Crude oil,

Petroleum and Crude Oil goes hand in hand, this was first discovered in Oloibiri, Bayelsa state in 1959. Petroleum is by far the most important mineral available in Nigeria.

About 2.5 million barrels of crude oil is produced per day while the gas reserves is put at 160 Trillion cubic meters.

This large quantity of oil is produced by only 8 States known as the oil producing States located in the Niger Delta Region of the country. These states includes Akwa Ibom, Delta, Rivers, Bayelsa, Edo, Ondo, Abia and Imo.

Nigeria currently have 4 refineries for refining crude oil though none can be said to be fully functional. These includes 2 in Rivers state, one in Warri that in Delta while the remaining one is in kaduna state.

The list of mineral resources in Nigeria is not complete without these two. Petroleum and natural gas goes hand in hand. This means anywhere there is petroleum, crude oil is also present.

Crude oil is the most important mineral resources in Nigeria and the one our economy largely depends on. It was first discovered in large quantity in 1959 at Oloibiri, Bayelsa state and since then had become the major source of income for the nation.

Crude oil, also known as black gold, is the life wire of the Nigerian economy presently. While it has been more of a blessing than a curse, over-reliance on this very particular mineral resource might do us more harm than good in the future, especially when many nations of the world are shifting their focus towards renewable energy.

2. GOLD

Gold is one of the mineral resources in Nigeria that is exploited on a small scale. The exploration of gold is not very dominant and can be found in only in places in States like Sokoto, Zamfara, Oyo, Niger, Kwara, Kebbi, Kaduna, Edo, Ebonyi, Bauchi and Abuja.

Gold need no introduction as a precious mineral. In Nigeria, gold is explored in small scale mostly by local miners and villagers where the gold deposits are located.

In essence, gold exploration is not common and it is done at a small scale mostly in the northern part of the country.

States that have a substantial amount of gold deposit include: Sokoto, Zamfara, Kebbi, Kaduna, Kwara, Niger, Bauchi, Abuja, Oyo, Edo and Ebonyi states respectively.

3. GYPSUM

The importance of gypsum cannot be overemphasised, it is used in the production of cement, plaster of Paris (POP) as well as the classroom chalk among others. About 1 billion tonnes of gypsum deposits are spread across some states in Nigeria.

These includes Adamawa, Anambra, Bauchi, Bayelsa, Benue, Borno, Delta, Edo, Gombe, Imo, Kogi, Ondo and Sokoto.

This is one of the mineral resources in Nigeria that is underutilized yet has a lot of application. It is an important input for the production of cement as well as the production of Plaster of Paris (P.O.P) and the popular classroom chalks.

4. COAL

Coal was first discovered in 1909 at Enugu and exploration of it started at the Ogbete Mine in 1916. The Nigerian coal is one of the best coal in the world owning to low sulphur and ash content making it eco-friendly.

From research, it had been discovered that Nigeria have nearly 3 billion tonnes of indicated coal reserves in 17 identified coal fields. Currently, only over 600 million tonnes of proven reserves are present.

6. TALC

This is one of the mineral resource in Nigeria. It is found in places like Niger, Osun, Kogi, Ogun and Kaduna states. The current deposit of talc is put at around 40 million tonnes.

The only talc plant in the country is the Raw Materials Research and Development Council (RMRDC)’s 3,000 tonnes per annum catalytic Talc plant in Niger state.

Talc is one of the underutilized mineral resources in Nigeria even with it large deposit of forty million tonnes found in states such as Kaduna, Kogi, Niger, Osun and Ogun. There’s only one talc plant in Nigeria and it is located in Niger state.

The talc plant is the Raw Materials Research and Development Council (RMRDC)’s 3,000 tonnes per annum catalytic Talc plant.

7. IRON ORE

Iron ore is another mineral resources in Nigeria with it largest deposit in Itakpe, Kogi state. Aside Kogi, it is also present in Enugu, Niger state and the Federal Capital Territory. About 3 billion metric tonnes of iron ore is said to be present in the country.

The National Iron Ore Mining Company was founded in 1979 in order to explore and provide this iron ore to the Ajaokuta Steel Company in Ajaokuta and Delta Steel Company in Aladja.

This company cannot be said to have keep to it misson and the two steel companies are even nln-functional.

8. LEAD/ZINC

An estimated 10 million tonnes of lead/zinc veins are spread over Abia, Abuja, Akwa Ibom, Anambra, Bayelsa, Benue, Cross River, Ebonyi, Enugu, Kano, Niger, Plateau and Taraba. Proven reserves in 3 prospects in the east-central area are put at 5 million tonnes waiting for investors to benefit from it.

An estimated 10 million tonnes of lead/zinc veins are spread over 8 states of Nigeria.

These states where lead and zinc can be found in Nigeria include: Abia state, Abuja, Akwa Ibom state, Anambra state, Benue state, Bayelsa state, Cross River state, Enugu state, Ebonyi state, Kano state, Niger state, Plateau and Taraba states.

Proven reserves in 3 prospects in the east-central area are 5 million tonnes.

9. BENTONITE AND BARYTE

Bentonite and Baryte are the main constituents of the mud used in the drilling of all types of oil wells. Currently, over 700 million tonnes of Bentonite is spread across Adamawa, Borno and Plateau state. On the other hand, over 7.5 million tonnes of baryte have been identified in Taraba and Bauchi States.

These are the main constituents of the mud used in the drilling of all types of oil wells. In Nigeria, the baryte has specific gravity of about 4.3.

10. GEMSTONES

Gemstones are one of the important mineral resources in Nigeria found and exploited heavily in Plateau, Kaduna and Bauchi.

Sapphire, ruby, aquamarine, emerald, tourmaline, topaz, garnet, amethyst; zircon, and flourspar are some of the Gemstones in these areas and are regarded as part of the best in the world.

Gemstones mining have boomed in various parts of Plateau, Kaduna and Bauchi states for years.

Some of these gemstones include sapphire, ruby, aquamarine, emerald, tourmaline, topaz, garnet, amethyst; zircon, and flourspar which are among the world’s best.

11. BITUMEN

This mineral resources was first discovered in 1900 and the exploration started in 1905. The Bitumen reserves in the Nigeria is twice the volume of the existing crude oil in the country. It is put at 42 billion tonnes.

The irony of it however is, this large reserves are not been exploited and most of the bitumen used in road constructions are imported. States you can find this includes Lagos State, Ogun State, Ondo State, and Edo State.

12. KAOLIN

kaolinitic clay reserveat in Nigeria had been put at 3 billion tonnes and are found in places like Adamawa, Borno, Delta, Ekiti, Kaduna, Katsina, Kogi, Ogun, Ondo, Plateau and Sokoto.

An estimated reserve of 3 billion tonnes of good kaolinitic clay has been identified in many states in Nigeria.

These states include: Adamawa, Borno, Delta, Ekiti, Kaduna, Katsina, Kogi, Ogun, Ondo, Plateau and Sokoto state.

12. ROCK SALT

This is a very important mineral resource in Nigeria, it is used for making caustic soda, table salt, chlorine, sodium hydrochloric acid, sodium bicarbonate and hydrogen peroxide. In fact, the annual demand for these items had exceeded 1 million tonnes. Currently, there are indications that about 1.5 million tonnes of rock salt is deposited in this country.

Mineral Resources and Location In Nigeria 

Mineral Resources in Nigeria

Nigeria as the world’s most populous black nation is endowed with numerous mineral and natural resources found in its portion of the earth’s crust, located in all 36 States of the Federation;

1. ABUJA

Mineral resources in Abuja include:

      • Marble
      • Clay
      • Tantalite
      • Cassiterite
      • Gold (this is partially investigated)
      • Lead /Zinc (Found in traces)
      • Dolomite
2. ABIA

Mineral resources in Abia include:

      • Gold
      • Salt
      • Limestone
      • Lead
      • Zinc
      • Crude Oil
3. ADAMAWA

Mineral resources in Adamawa include:

      • Kaolin
      • Bentonite
      • Gypsum
      • Magnesite
4. AKWA IBOM

Mineral resources in Akwa Ibom include:

      • Lead
      • Zinc
      • Clay
      • Limestone
      • Uranium (Found in traces)
      • Salt
      • Lignite (Found in traces)
5. ANAMBRA

Mineral resources in Anambra include:

      • Lead
      • Zinc
      • Clay
      • Limestone
      • Iron-Ore
      • Lignite (This is partially investigated)
      • Salt
      • Glass-Sand
      • Phosphate
      • Gypsum
      • Crude Oil
6. BAYELSA

Mineral resources in Bayelsa include:

      • Clay
      • Limestone
      • Gypsum (This is partially investigated)
      • Uranium (This is partially investigated)
      • Manganese
      • Lignite
      • Lead (Found in traces)
      • Zinc (Found in traces)
7. BAUCHI

Mineral resources in Bauchi include:

      • Amethyst (violet)
      • Gypsum
      • Lead (Found in traces)
      • Zinc (Found in traces)
      • Uranium (This is partially investigated)
8. BENUE

Mineral resources in Benue include:

      • Lead
      • Zinc
      • Limestone
      • Iron-Ore
      • Coal
      • Clay
      • Marble
      • Salt
      • Barites (Found in traces)
      • Gemstones
      • Gypsum
9. BORNO

Mineral resources found in Borno include:

      • Diatomite
      • Clay
      • Limestone
      • Hydrocarbons (This is partially investigated)
      • Gypsum
      • Kaolin
      • Bentonite
10. CROSS RIVER

Mineral resources found in Cross River include:

      • Limestone
      • Uranium
      • Manganese
      • Lignite
      • Lead
      • Zinc
      • Salt
      • Crude Oil
11. DELTA

Mineral resources found in Delta include:

      • Marble
      • Glass Sand
      • Gypsum
      • Lignite
      • Iron-Ore
      • Kaolin
12. EBONYI

Mineral resources found in Ebonyi include:

      • Lead
      • Gold (partially investigated)
      • Salt
13. EDO

Mineral resources found in Edo include:

      • Marble
      • Lignite
      • Clay
      • Limestone
      • Iron Ore
      • Gypsum
      • Glass Sand
      • Gold
      • Dolomite
      • Phosphate
      • Bitumen
      • Crude Oil
14. EKITI

Mineral resources found in Ekiti include:

      • Kaolin
      • Feldspar
      • Titanium
      • Granite
      • Syenite
15. ENUGU

Mineral resources found in Enugu include:

      • Coal
      • Limestone
      • Lead
      • Zinc
16. GOMBE

Mineral resources found in Gombe include:

      • Gemstone
      • Gypsum
17. IMO

Mineral resources found in Imo include:

      • Lead
      • Zinc
      • Limestone
      • Lignite
      • Phosphate
      • Marcasite
      • Gypsum
      • Salt
      • Crude Oil
18. JIGAWA

Mineral resources found in Jigawa include:

      • Butytes
19. KADUNA

Mineral resources found in Kaduna include:

      • Sapphire
      • Kaolin
      • Gold
      • Clay
      • Serpentinite
      • Asbestos
      • Amethyst
      • Kyanite
      • Graphite (This is partially investigated)
      • Selenite
      • Mica (Found in traces)
      • Aquamarine
      • Ruby
      • Rock Crystal
      • Topaz
      • Copper
      • Tourmaline
      • Gemstone
      • Tantalum
20. KANO

Mineral resources found in Kano include:

      • Cassiterite
      • Copper
      • Glass
      • Sand
      • Gemstone
      • Lead
      • Zinc
      • Tantalite
21. KATSINA

Mineral resources found in Katsina include:

      • Kaolin
      • Marble
      • Salt
22. KEBBI

Mineral resources found in Kebbi include:

      • Gold
23. KOGI

Mineral resources found in Kogi include:

      • Iron-Ore
      • Kaolin
      • Gypsum
      • Feldspar
      • Coal
      • Marble
      • Dolomite
      • Talc
      • Tantalite
24. KWARA

Mineral resources found in Kwara include:

      • Gold
      • Marble
      • Iron-Ore
      • Cassiterite
      • Columbite
      • Tantalite
      • Feldspar (found in traces)
      • Mica (Found in traces)
25. LAGOS

Mineral resources found in Lagos include:

      • Glass Sand
      • Clay
      • Bitumen
      • Crude Oil
26. NASARAWA

Mineral resources found in Nasarawa include:

      • Beryl
      • Aquamarine
      • Heliodor
      • Dolomite
      • Marble
      • Sapphire
      • Tourmaline
      • Quartz
      • Amethyst
      • Zircon
      • Tantalite
      • Cassiterite
      • Columbite
      • Lamanite
      • Galena
      • Iron-Ore
      • Barites
      • Feldspar
      • Limestone
      • Mica
      • Cooking Coal
      • Talc
      • Clay
      • Salt
      • Chalcopyrite
27. NIGER

Mineral resources found in Niger include:

      • Gold
      • Talc
      • Lead
      • Zinc
28. OGUN

Mineral resources found in Ogun include:

      • Phosphate
      • Clay
      • Feldspar (Found in traces)
      • Kaolin
      • Limestone
      • Gemstone
      • Bitumen
29. ONDO

Mineral resources found in Ondo include:

      • Bitumen
      • Kaolin
      • Gemstone
      • Gypsum
      • Feldspar
      • Granite
      • Clay
      • Glass Sand
      • Dimension Stones
      • Limestone
      • Coal
      • Crude Oil
30. OSUN

Mineral resources found in Osun include:

      • Gold
      • Talc
      • Tourmaline
      • Columbite
      • Granite
31. OYO

Mineral resources found in Oyo include:

      • Kaolin
      • Marble
      • Clay
      • Sillimanite
      • Talc
      • Gold
      • Cassiterite
      • Aquamarine
      • Dolomite
      • Gemstone
      • Tantalite
32. PLATEAU

Mineral resources in Plateau include:

      • Emerald
      • Tin
      • Marble
      • Granite
      • Tantalite
      • Lead
      • Zinc
      • Barites
      • Iron-Ore
      • Kaolin
      • Belonite
      • Cassiterite
      • Pyrochlore
      • Clay
      • Coal
      • Wolfram
      • Salt
      • Bismuth
      • Fluoride
      • Molybdenum
      • Gemstone
      • Bauxite
33. RIVERS

Mineral resources found in Rivers include:

      • Glass Sand
      • Clay
      • Marble
      • Lignite (Found in traces)
      • Crude Oil
34. SOKOTO

Mineral resources found in Sokoto include:

      • Kaolin
      • Gold
      • Limestone
      • Phosphate
      • Gypsum
      • Silica Sand
      • Clay
      • Laterite
      • Potash
      • Granite
      • Gold
      • Salt
35. TARABA

Mineral resources found in Taraba include:

      • Kaolin
      • Lead
      • Zinc
36. YOBE

Mineral resources found in Yobe include:

      • Tintomite
      • Soda Ash (This is partially Investigated)
37. ZAMFARA

Mineral resources found in Zamfara include:

      • Coal
      • Gold

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