Principle of Biosafety Cabinet and Uses

Following the modernization and sophistication of almost every part and section of the world, the sciences too do not pretend failing to have witnessed the several impacts of technology in forms of its many innovations. One of these is the biosafety cabinet which is mainly meant for the effective carrying-out of laboratory work, both in school and hospital. Thus, the principle of biosafety cabinet and uses.

Biosafety Cabinets are one of the majorly known safety equipment in scientific laboratories. They usually are enclosed workplaces which are ventilated to provide protection to the user or users while handling contaminated or potentially contaminated micro-organisms.

A biosafety cabinet is a primary containment device used with biological material. While handling biological agents, it is the biological equivalent of using hazardous chemicals inside a fume hood. Like a chemical fume hood, a biosafety cabinet protects the user from hazardous material using directional air flow.

Characteristics of Biosafety Cabinet and Uses

  • The sidewalls of the biosafety cabinet working bench are made of stainless steel.
  • The BSC has visible light of 800 lux.
  • It also contains UV lamp for sterilization (User should not come in to direct contact of UV light).
  • The unit has user-friendly microprocessor regulatory system that displays the required parameter digitally and allows the user to control it.
  • The BSC are accompanied with sensors for external factors like heat, dust and moisture.
  • High efficiency HEPA filter should be assembled with 0.2 to 0.3 μ.
  • The BSC should not make much noise.
  • It is should be easy to clean and decontaminate.

Principle of Biosafety Cabinet and Uses

Here are the principle of biosafety cabinet and uses that we will need you to have knowledge of, in case of times of necessity such as this:

1. Biosafety Cabinet Class I

This is one of the most basic principles of the classes of Cabinets that provides personnel and environmental protection but no product protection. In fact, the inward flow of air can contribute to contamination of samples. Inward airflow is maintained at a minimum velocity of 75 ft./min(0.38 m/s). These BSCs are commonly used to enclose specific equipment (e.g. centrifuges) or procedures (e.g. aerating cultures) that potentially generate aerosols. BSCs of this class are either ducted (connected to the building exhaust system) or ductless (recirculating filtered exhaust back into the laboratory). It is the most basic design among the biological safety cabinets. BSC I provide protection to user and environment but not to sample. The plenum protects the user.

When user is working on any biological agent in the BSC, the agent might be moving in the cabinet in the form of aerosol. While exiting from cabinet, these aerosols pass through HEPA filter. The filter traps the biological agent and decontaminated air is exhausted. BSC I does not protect the sample from the biological agents present in the air of room. Hence, in BSC I there is more possibility of contamination of sample.

Principle of Biosafety Cabinet and Uses

2. Biosafety Cabinet Class II

Class II cabinets provide both kinds of protection (of the samples and of the environment) since makeup air is also HEPA-filtered. There are five types: Type A1 (formerly A), Type A2 (formerly A/B3), Type B1, Type B2 and Type C1. Each type’s requirements are defined by NSF International Standard 49, which in 2002 reclassified A/B3 cabinets (classified under the latter type if connected to an exhaust duct) as Type A2, and added the Type C1 in the 2016 standard. About 90% of all biosafety cabinets installed are Type A2 cabinets.

It is advanced form of BSC I that provides protection to user, environment and Sample. The downward flow system of HEPA filter provides protection to experimental sample. The decontaminate airflow from HEPA filter on the working bench of cabinet protecting sample. BSC II protects environment by similar mechanism that is followed in BSC I by suing HEPA filtered exhaust. The further types of BSC II are based on the HEPA filtered exhaust air; in different following types the extent of recirculation of air varies.

Principles of operation use motor driven blowers (fans) mounted in the cabinet to draw directional mass airflow around a user and into the air grille – protecting the operator. The air is then drawn underneath the work surface and back up to the top of the cabinet where it passes through the HEPA filters.

Principle of Biosafety Cabinet and Uses

3. Biosafety Cabinet III

Though generally only installed in maximum containment laboratories, it is specifically designed for work with BSL-4 pathogenic agents, providing maximum protection. The enclosure is gas-tight, and all materials enter and leave through a dunk tank or double-door autoclave. Gloves attached to the front prevent direct contact with hazardous materials (Class III cabinets are sometimes called glove boxes). These custom-built cabinets often attach into a line, and the lab equipment installed inside is usually custom-built as well.

This type of Biosafety cabinets are totally enclosed and associated with attached rubber gloves for user’s hands. This class is used for working on the biological agent, which are at biosafety risk level 3 and 4. This cabinet offers highest level of protection to person, environment, and experimental material.

Principle of Biosafety Cabinet and Uses

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