What are the types of Argument structure?… There are two types of argument. Deductive and Inductive argument. Historically speaking, deductive reasoning can be traced back to the ancient Greek philosopher, Aristotle. Inductive reasoning, on the other hand, was developed by the famous British philosopher, Francis Bacon and his successor, J.S. Mill. In deduction, we infer particular from general truths, while in induction, we infer general from particular. Accordingly: What are the types of Argument structure?
A deductive argument makes the claim that its conclusion is supported by its premises conclusively. An inductive argument, in contrast, does not make such a claim. Therefore, if we judge that in some passage a claim or conclusiveness is being made, we treat the argument as deductive; if we judge that such a claim is not being made, we treat it as inductive. Since every argument either makes this claim of conclusiveness (explicitly or implicitly) or does not make it, every argument is either deductive or inductive.
There are distinguishing features between deductive and inductive arguments. If we are confronted with an argument whose truth of its premises guarantees the truth of its conclusion, then that argument is said to involve in a deductive inference. In other words, “a deductive inference succeeds only if its premises provide such absolute and complete support for its conclusion that it would be utterly inconsistent to suppose that the premises are true but the conclusion false. On the other hand, an argument is said to involve an inductive inference if it “claims merely that the truth of its premises make it likely or probable that its conclusion is also true. This means that in an inductive argument the premises do not give total support to the conclusion but merely provide some grounds for the truth of their conclusions. The foregoing can be termed as the distinguishing features between deductive and inductive arguments. These features can be summarised thus:
- In a deductive argument, the premises conclusively or logically imply the conclusion; in an inductive argument, the premises only provide some probable grounds for the acceptance of the
- If the premises of a deductive argument provide conclusive grounds for the truth of the conclusion, then the argument is said to be valid; inductive arguments cannot be valid but can be strengthened or weakened by additional premises.
- If a deductive argument is valid, then it is impossible for its premises to be true and its conclusion false; it is possible for the conclusion of an inductive argument to be false even when the premises are true.
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