The process of synthesizing protein can be a little bit not obvious; however, here are the steps of protein synthesis in order which you can identify not only for mere knowledge reasons but for the practical benefits that may come with the idea of having the knowledge.
Protein synthesis represents the major route of disposal of amino acids. Amino acids are activated by binding to specific molecules of transfer RNA and assembled by ribosomes into a sequence that has been specified by messenger RNA, which in turn has been transcribed from the DNA template.
It is also a core biological process, occurring inside cells, balancing the loss of cellular proteins (via degradation or export) through the production of new proteins. Proteins perform a number of critical functions as enzymes, structural proteins or hormones.
Dangers of Running the Malformation of Protein
If the body is unable to synthesize proteins, it can lead to several serious health problems.
- Growth and development: Stunted growth, delayed wound healing, and other developmental issues.
- Enzyme dysfunction: Various metabolic disorders.
- Hormone dysfunction: Several hormonal imbalances.
- Immune dysfunction: Increased susceptibility to diseases and infections.
- Muscles and movement: Muscle weakness and problems with movement.
- Anemia: A lack of hemoglobin can lead to anemia.
- Nutritional deficiencies: Malnutrition and various nutritional deficiencies.
- Genetic disorders: The replication and repair process of DNA is hampered, leading to genetic disorders.
Steps in Order
Just as translation may also be recognized as protein synthesis because this is the phase during which the protein molecule is formed, we shall be enlightening you about the steps of protein synthesis in order. You see, during translation, the tRNA transports the amino acids to the corresponding codon to form an amino acid chain.
The first stage of protein synthesis. A segment of the DNA is copied into a molecule of RNA. During transcription, a specific enzyme called RNA polymerase reads the DNA code and creates a complementary RNA molecule.
The RNA polymerase binds to a specific region of the DNA called the promoter. (The promoter is a specific sequence of nucleotides.) The promoter signals the location of a gene that needs to be transcribed. Once RNA polymerase binds to the promoter, it unwinds the double helix by breaking the hydrogen bonds between the base pairs. This allows the two strands of the DNA to separate, exposing the genetic code so that it can be read by the RNA polymerase.
Read Also: Does an Organism’s DNA Code for Proteins?
RNA polymerase adds nucleotides to the DNA and converts it into RNA, which is later modified into tRNA, mRNA, rRNA, and other RNAs. The mRNA moves to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm for the synthesis of proteins.
Transcription occurs in the cell’s nucleus. RNA polymerase reads the DNA code and creates a complementary RNA molecule.
The second stage of protein synthesis. It uses the genetic information in RNA to build a sequence of amino acids, ultimately forming a protein. Translation occurs on ribosomes, which are structures in the cell that are responsible for protein synthesis.
Translation occurs in the cytoplasm. The RNA molecule created in the transcription process is read and translated into a sequence of amino acids, which will form a protein. Translation occurs on ribosomes, which are found in the cytoplasm.
The translation process begins with the initiation phase, where a small subunit of the ribosome binds to the mRNA and a special initiator tRNA brings in the first amino acid at the AUG start codon. The ribosome scans the mRNA until it finds the start codon, AUG, and the small ribosomal subunit binds to the mRNA, followed by the larger subunit.
The ribosome reads the sequence of codons on the mRNA. It matches them to the corresponding tRNAs, bringing in the correct amino acids to add to the growing polypeptide chain. The ribosome moves along the mRNA, reading the codons and adding the matching amino acids to the growing protein chain.
Finally, the ribosome reaches a stop codon, which signals the end of translation. The completed protein is then released into the cytoplasm. The ribosome reaches one of the three stop codons (UAA, UAG, or UGA). These release factors bind to these codons, releasing the newly synthesized protein into the cytoplasm.
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