Causes and Consequences of Migration

Poverty and global advancement towards modernization have characterized some of the reasons for why people move from their rural dwellings to urban spaces. What could be the causes and consequences of migration on the society at large? This very question is as important as the theme of migration which we shall be looking into in this content.

The human migration is the movement of people from one place to another with intentions of settling, permanently or temporarily, at a new location (geographic region). The movement often occurs over long distances and from one country to another (external migration), but internal migration (within a single country) is also possible; indeed, this is the dominant form of human migration globally.

There are however various causes and consequences of migration, and this tells so much on the outlook of the concerned society including the effect it makes on the citizens who are migrating. Migration is actually a welcome development because it shows that there is a chance to survival than it is available in other places.

Migration is popularly an escape route out of poverty, plague, war, natural disasters, etc. A person who seeks refuge in another country can, if the reason for leaving the home country is political, religious, or another form of persecution, make a formal application to that country where refuge is sought and is then usually described as an asylum seeker.

Causes and Consequences of Migration

The discussion of the causes and consequences of migration is the core of this content. Subsequently, I shall be outlining them one after the other. Although migration may have positive effects such as:

  • Unemployment is reduced and people get better job opportunities.
  • Migration helps in improving the quality of life of people.
  • It helps to improve social life of people as they learn about new culture, customs, and languages which helps to improve brotherhood among people.
  • Migration of skilled workers leads to a greater economic growth of the region.
  • Children get better opportunities for higher education.
  • The population density is reduced and the birth rate decreases.

It also have its own woes and negativity. In fact, they are many.

Negative Effects of Migration on Urban and Remote Society

  1. Migration causes loss of hardworking persons from urban and rural areas. It therefore affects the level of output and development.
  2. Migration also increases the competition for jobs, houses, school facilities etc. because of the influx of workers in urban areas.
  3. There is the presence of too much pressure on natural resources, amenities and services because of having large population puts.
  4. Migration changes the population of a place, therefore, the distribution of the population becomes uneven.
  5. Migration is one of the main causes of increasing nuclear family where children grow up without a wider family circle.
  6. It is difficult for a villager to survive in urban areas because in urban areas there is no natural environment and pure air. They have to pay for each and everything.
  7. Many migrants are completely illiterate and uneducated, therefore, they are not only unfit for most jobs, but also lack basic knowledge and life skills.
  8. Migration is caused by poverty and so it also brings about poverty which at the end of the day makes society unable to live a normal and healthy life.
  9. It will make the people have no access to proper nutrition, education or health because of the overpopulation cum the competition.
  10. Migration increases the slum areas in cities which increase many problems such as unhygienic conditions, crime, pollution etc.
  11. Migration also compels exploitation in almost all parastatals as even migrants are exploited.

What Brings About Migrants Moving?

Below are the list of some unwanted factors that might cause you to migrate from one city to the other:

  • Drought & flood
  • Calamities
  • Threat of life
  • Poverty
  • No job or high unemployment
  • War, civil war, conflict among people
  • Terrorism
  • Poor living standard
  • Political instability
  • Harsh climate
  • Natural disaster
  • Epidemic
  • Social and economic backwardness

Here are another welcome reasons why immigrants from across the world move or migrate:

  • Better economic opportunities
  • Better job opportunities
  • Better living condition
  • Peace and stability
  • Security of Life and property
  • Pleasant climate
  • Better life
  • Better services such as better opportunities for education, communication & health services

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