Forms of Examination Malpractice

Five Forms of Examination Malpractice

In our focus on the aberration of examinations, there are five forms of examination malpractice that we shall be looking at in this content. But first we will have to understand what examination malpractice mean and how it has been able to establish itself with roots in the education of the child.

Indeed, education is the master of all development if it is excellently undergone through the laid down procedures, and whenever something goes wrong from normal procedures the yielded results might not be good enough. The situation that makes some parts of the world to be left behind in times of national developments is because the education sectors is full of corrupt malpractices.

  • Concept and Definition

An examination is a form of evaluation where the learner is tested in all areas covered in the process of teaching at the end of a semester for proper placement and certification.  It has a time table and a time frame. It always has an external body or examination committee to moderate.

Examination and education are inseparable, for the efficiency and quality of an educational system is usually determined through the performance of its products in an examination or a set of examinations.

Examination malpractice is an act or arrangement from which an examinee is programmed to derive illegal and illicit advantage over and above other candidates (students) in respect of some given examinations. It is also defined as any deliberate act of wrong doing which is contrary to the rules of examinations that are designed to give a candidate an undue advantage.

The practice is also known as cheating which is the illegal action that students take during their examinations to try to make good grades by cutting corners. Examination malpractice, a pervasive issue in today’s educational landscape, has far-reaching consequences on the academic, personal, and ethical development of students.

The negative effects of examination malpractice on today’s students cannot be overstated. From compromised learning outcomes to damaged integrity and character, the consequences extend far beyond the immediate academic setting.

  • The Negative Influences and Effects of Examination Malpractice

From compromised learning outcomes to damaged integrity and character, it is crucial to understand the negative impact of these unethical practices and work collectively to address this pressing issue. As part of the content on the five forms of examination malpractice, let us first look at the effects of the menace:

Compromised Learning and Knowledge Acquisition

Examination malpractice undermines the fundamental purpose of assessments, which is to evaluate students’ understanding and mastery of the subject matter. When students engage in cheating or other forms of malpractice, they deprive themselves of the opportunity to truly learn and comprehend the content.

As a result, their knowledge remains shallow and incomplete. This not only hampers their academic growth but also affects their ability to apply knowledge effectively in real-world scenarios.

Erosion of Academic Integrity and Ethics

Engaging in examination malpractice erodes students’ sense of academic integrity and ethical conduct. Cheating fosters a culture of dishonesty and undermines the principles of fairness and meritocracy in education. It devalues hard work, discourages genuine effort, and promotes a mindset of shortcuts and deceit.

Moreover, when students succeed through dishonest means, they miss out on the character-building experiences that come from facing challenges, learning from failures, and developing resilience.

Diminished Self-Esteem and Confidence

The repercussions of examination malpractice can have a profound impact on students’ self-esteem and confidence. Knowing that their academic achievements are based on cheating rather than their own abilities can lead to feelings of inadequacy and imposter syndrome.

The constant fear of being caught further heightens anxiety and erodes self-assurance. As a result, students may become increasingly dependent on dishonest practices, perpetuating a cycle of low self-esteem and compromised personal growth.

Inadequate Preparation for Future Challenges

Examination malpractice deprives students of the opportunity to develop essential skills and qualities needed for future challenges. Through cheating, students bypass the process of critical thinking, problem-solving, and analytical reasoning that examinations are designed to assess.

These skills are crucial for success in higher education and the professional world. By engaging in malpractice, students miss out on valuable learning experiences that shape their ability to navigate complex problems and make informed decisions.

Loss of Respect and Credibility

The act of examination malpractice tarnishes students’ reputation, both within the academic community and in the wider society. When individuals are known to cheat, their accomplishments lose credibility, and their integrity is called into question. This loss of respect can have lasting consequences on their personal and professional relationships. Moreover, it undermines the trust and faith that institutions, employers, and society place in their abilities and qualifications, potentially limiting future opportunities and advancement.

Stifled Ethical Development and Citizenship

Examination malpractice hinders the development of ethical values and responsible citizenship among students. Education is not just about acquiring knowledge; it is also about shaping individuals who contribute positively to society.

Read Also: Things to Know About Real Estate Exam

By engaging in dishonest practices, students fail to internalize the importance of honesty, integrity, and ethical behavior. This undermines their ability to become responsible citizens who uphold moral values and contribute to the betterment of their communities.

  • Five Forms of Malpractices in Examination

Below are the five forms of examination malpractice and more:


It is used to describe a situation of exposing the examination questions papers to the candidates before they actually sit for the examinations.


This is an act of sticking out one’s neck to see another student’s answer sheet in the examination hall.

Lateral Connection

This is a sitting arrangement whereby the ‘bright’ student is seated in the center flanked on both sides by other students.


This is when students copy in the examination hall either another student’s paper or the material they brought into the examination hall.


This reflects a situation when a students’ grade is influenced with the assistance of a friendly Teacher.


This is when a male/female student writes information on the tender parts of his/her thigh or in a shoe where he/she can easily adjust to reveal the material and such material can be cleared within a second when there is a problem.

Rank Xeroxing

This indicates a situation when a student collects and writes another student’s answer word for word.


This involves the use of calculators, which has facilities for multiple entries. The Invigilator may not know that it has such facilities; she/he may think it is an ordinary calculator.

Missile Catch

Represents answer written on a piece of paper, squeezed and thrown to a student while the examination is going on.


It is an exchange of paper booklets so that the bright student can write answers out for his/her friend.


Involves jotting of points on the mathematical set, razor blades, rulers, hankies and others of the like for referencing during examinations.

Body Aids

It involves jotting of points /answers on the underwear’s, or thighs for referencing during examination.

Mercenary Service

It involves employing the service of another student/person to write the examination.

Table Top

It is writing of anticipated answers on the top of a desk before the commencement of examination.


It is the sharing of questions and answers between groups for eventual connection in the examination hall.

Time Out

It is the act of going out to the ‘toilet’ to read up answers.

Direct Access

It is an act whereby an Examiner helps students during examination.


It is a situation whereby students pretend to be sick during an examination in order to gain the Examiner’s sympathy while marking.


It is the habit of students engaging ICT devices to indulge in examination malpractices.

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