The Edo people are predominant in the region between Yorubaland and Igboland. Much of the Edo tend to be Christian while the remaining 25 percent worship deities called Ogu. This group is followed by the Ibibio/Annang/Efik people of the coastal southeastern Nigeria and the Ijaw of the Niger Delta.
The official language of Nigeria is English, it was chosen to facilitate the multi cultural and linguistic unity of the country post-colonization by the British.
The major native languages spoken in Nigeria represent three major families of African languages the majority are Niger-Congo languages, such as Yoruba, Ibo, the Hausa language is Afro-Asiatic; and Kanuri, spoken in the northeast, primarily Borno State, is a member of the Nilo-Saharan family.
List of Most Common Culture in Nigeria
Nigerians are proud of the unique cultural heritage of their particular ethnic group. Nigerians oppose dictatorship, regardless of the ethnicity.
Nigeria culture is famous for its indigenous languages, mode of dressing, English language literature, apart from English language being its international language, pidgin is also a lingua franca that was common in the street for those who cannot speak the formal English but nowadays everybody all speak Pidgin English.
Nigerians are proud of the unique cultural heritage of their particular ethnic group. Nigerians oppose dictatorship, regardless of the ethnicity. Here are the most common culture in Nigeria:
1. Nigeria’s Multiple Ethnic Groups
Nigeria has over 250 ethnic groups, the most populous and politically influential being Hausa-Fulani 29%, Yoruba 21%, Igbo (Ibo) 18%, Ijaw 10%, Kanuri 4%, Ibibio 3.5%, Tiv 2.5%. It also has over 500 languages, with English being the official language.
Nigeria’s major ethnic groups are Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo (Ibo), and Fulani. Other are Efik-Ibibio, Kanuri, Tiv, Edo, Ijaw and many more.
Muslim Hausa and Fulani are the predominant ethnic groups in Nigeria’s northern region. Though the groups originated in different parts of West Africa, religion, intermarriage and adoption of the Hausa language by the Fulani have unified the groups over time.
The Igbo, the main ethnic group in southeastern Nigeria, has represented some of the staunchest opponents of Sharia law.
The Yoruba are one of Nigeria’s most urban ethnic groups. Historically, their culture centered on densely populated city-states each controlled by an oba, or king. Yoruba now form the majority in Lagos, the second most populous city in Africa.
2. Religion Culture
Religion Culture is also the most common culture in Nigeria practiced by Nigerians. About 47 percent of Nigerians are Muslim, 45 percent are Christian, and that the remaining 7 percent practice various indigenous religions. While Muslims can be found in all parts of Nigeria, their strongest footholds are among the Hausa and the Yoruba.
Many religions are followed in Nigeria. The constitution guarantees religious freedom. Christians predominantly live in the south of the country, whereas Muslims live predominantly in the north. Native religions in which people believe in deities, spirits and ancestor worship, are spread throughout the country.
Many Muslims and Christians may also intertwine their beliefs with more unorthodox indigenous ones.
The major Christian celebrations of Christmas and Easter are recognized as national holidays. Muslims observe Ramadan, the Islamic month of fasting, and the two Eids.
3. Language Culture
There over 500 languages in Nigeria. This number includes 510 living languages, 2 second languages without native speakers and 9 extinct languages. The most common speaking languages in Nigeria are English, Pidgin, Yoruba, Ibo, and the Hausa.
The major native languages spoken in Nigeria represent three major families of African languages – the majority are Niger-Congo languages, such as Yoruba, Ibo, the Hausa language is Afro-Asiatic; and Kanuri, spoken in the northeast, primarily Borno State, is a member of the Nilo-Saharan family.
Even though most ethnic groups prefer to communicate in their own languages, English, being the official language, is widely used for education, business transactions and for official purposes. English as a first language in Nigeria, however, remains an exclusive preserve of a small minority of the country’s urban elite, and is not spoken at all in some rural areas.
4. Dress culture of Nigeria
The dress culture of Nigerians is one of the most common culture in Nigeria and a major distinguishing factor of their culture, as it says a lot about the particular ethnic group because the materials used for their clothing accessories and mode of dressing such people is peculiar to them. Nigeria, as a multi-cultural nation comprises also of diverse dress culture of the various peoples that make up the nation. The interesting aspect about this is the fact that there is beauty in diversity.
Each ethnic groups in Nigeria have their unique mode of dressing and customs but because of time we would make reference to the three major ethnic groups in Nigeria which are Yoruba, Igbo and Hausa.
In Nigeria, the ‘aso-oke’ fabric is identified mostly with the Yorubas of South-western Nigeria, a dress culture that is in vogue all over Nigeria and has become the order or uniform for wedding occasions, parties, festivals and even burial ceremonies, known with the name, ‘asoebi’.
The Hausa/Fulani style dress culture is yet another flourishing aspect of the Nigerian dress culture, the flowing gown called ‘babanriga’ and turban with cap to match for their men, and the women with their Ankara top blouse and wrapper with veil known as ‘hijab’ to match.
Another dress culture in vogue in the country is the up and down wrapper style of the Igbos of South-eastern Nigeria, known as ‘ishiagu’ popular with their women. The same wrapper the women use is also used for the tops for their men.
The multiplicity of Nigerian dress culture is an added advantage because, as it is said, ‘there is unity in diversity’, and we do have beauty in our diversity in the area of dress culture, because, as fashion is dynamic in other parts of the world so it is in Nigeria with our diverse dress cultures.
5. Foods Culture
Since culture is the total way of life, food is part of Nigeria culture. What do people eat in Nigeria?
The Nigerian diet frequently consists of cassava, yams and rice. Nigerians are fond of hot, spicy food. Climatic conditions favor a wide variety of vegetables and fruits. Because of the “tse-tse” fly, dairy cattle are scarce in coastal regions. Jollof rice and pounded yams are perhaps the most famous Nigerian food but the cuisine has so much more to offer, especially with its abundance of richly flavored soups and stews and equally plentiful “swallow” foods.
Popular Nigeria Recipes are Garri, Fufu, Dodo (Fried Plantains), Efo (Vegetable Soup), Isu (Boiled Yams), Jollof Rice, Puff-Puff. Each ethnic groups in Nigeria have a unique foods and eating customs . Some eat with the hand (right hand only), while others use utensils. Hands are generally kept above the table.
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